January Fossils provide a record of the history of life. Smith is known as the Father of English Geology. Our understanding of the shape and pattern of the history of life depends on the accuracy of fossils and dating methods. Some critics, particularly religious fundamentalists, argue that neither fossils nor dating can be trusted, and that their interpretations are better. Other critics, perhaps more familiar with the data, question certain aspects of the quality of the fossil record and of its dating. These skeptics do not provide scientific evidence for their views.
Prominent Hominid Fossils
Human Evolution Evidence Evidence of Evolution Scientists have discovered a wealth of evidence concerning human evolution , and this evidence comes in many forms. Thousands of human fossils enable researchers and students to study the changes that occurred in brain and body size, locomotion, diet, and other aspects regarding the way of life of early human species over the past 6 million years.
Millions of stone tools, figurines and paintings, footprints, and other traces of human behavior in the prehistoric record tell about where and how early humans lived and when certain technological innovations were invented. Study of human genetics show how closely related we are to other primates — in fact, how connected we are with all other organisms — and can indicate the prehistoric migrations of our species, Homo sapiens, all over the world.
Mar 01, · Scientists have discovered a wealth of evidence concerning human evolution, and this evidence comes in many nds of human fossils enable researchers and students to study the changes that occurred in brain and body size, locomotion, diet, and other aspects regarding the way of life of early human species over the past 6 million years.
Acknowledgements Introduction his document discusses the way radiometric dating and stratigraphic principles are used to establish the conventional geological time scale. It is not about the theory behind radiometric dating methods, it is about their application, and it therefore assumes the reader has some familiarity with the technique already refer to “Other Sources” for more information. As an example of how they are used, radiometric dates from geologically simple, fossiliferous Cretaceous rocks in western North America are compared to the geological time scale.
To get to that point, there is also a historical discussion and description of non-radiometric dating methods. A common form of criticism is to cite geologically complicated situations where the application of radiometric dating is very challenging. These are often characterised as the norm, rather than the exception.
Fossils Provide New Clues to Tibetan Plateau’s Evolution
Interdisciplinary investigations of skeletal remains from the Neander Valley, Germany. At least three individuals are represented in the skeletal sample. Radiocarbon dates for Neandertal 1, from which a mtDNA sequence was determined in , and a second individual indicate an age of 40, yr for both. Computers have brought new life to fossil studies. Instead of just examining bones, researchers now digitize them, then fill in missing pieces, add flesh, and simulate gait and other features. This tutorial describes work using computer-assisted paleoanthropology to study Neandertals.
Our understanding of the shape and pattern of the history of life depends on the accuracy of fossils and dating methods. Some critics, particularly religious fundamentalists, argue that neither fossils nor dating can be trusted, and that their interpretations are better.
Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago.
It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present. If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking.
One must get past the arguments ad populum that its popularity counts for something , ad hominem that if you attack the person making the argument, this counts for something , and especially ad baculum that there are people who have the clout to decree it as true , to ask the key questions and challenge the unsubstantiated assumptions and thinking of those who would hold to the evolution position.
Today there are an increasing number of anti-creationist authors who are producing books and periodicals that make this relatively brief presentation insufficient to deal with all the points in dispute. Those defending creation today who don’t have the time to devote their life’s study to gaining expertise in all fields of inquiry must principally be prepared to think critically, logically, and challenge unsubstantiated assumptions made by these people.
They must also keep a level head in the face of some vicious attacks and diatribes that will be directed against them, as is advised in the scriptures 1 Peter 3: By way of definitions, I want to point out that when I speak of “evolution,” I am referring to the popular contemporary use of the word, which in a nutshell is the belief that all life forms are related by ancestry, and that the first life form occurred spontaneously, all due to completely natural processes.
When I speak of “creation,” I am referring to the inherently obvious fact that the origin of all life forms can be attributed to a creator who purposefully created them with planning and intent, and the documented fact that this occurred over the course of a week’s time several thousand years ago. This document is not a scientific thesis, but an apologetic intended to be submitted and defended by me in an interactive, online electronic forum.
Accuracy of Fossils and Dating Methods
View images by clicking on link or reduced image: Each image opens into a new window. These primitive, medium sized apes lived in rain forests between 18 and 22 million years ago.
Creation Versus Evolution: We compare the theory of evolution with the Bible’s creation account in easy-to-understand terms, using evidence from the fields of paleontology, geology, biology, and provide links and a bibliography for those who want to study both sides of the issue.
June 28, from Answers in Depth Animals can show up in the oddest places and make evolutionists scratch their heads as is the case with the newly discovered monkey fossils. Book Chapter March 28, from Creation: Facts of Life Can changes from molecules-to-man macroevolution be explained by extrapolated from the process of mutation-selection microevolution? June 22, from Answers in Depth Evolutionists have come to largely accept the fact that soft tissues can be preserved in fossils for an extraordinarily long time.
But millions of years. Magazine Department Article April 1, from Answers Magazine The fossil of a creature resembling a groundhog that lived during the time of dinosaurs has become an anomaly for evolutionists. Magazine Department Article April 1, from Answers Magazine Cartorhynchus lenticarpus, whose discovery was hailed last November, is being hailed as an evolutionary link, but this characterization is premature. Evolutionists want to know.
April 14, from News to Know Orphan eggs in Cretaceous Spain offer ambiguous clues to their missing parents. June 25, from News to Know Algae to bones.
W E L C O M E
Carbon , Radiometric Dating and Index Fossils Carbon dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50, years old. This technique is widely used on recent artifacts, but educators and students alike should note that this technique will not work on older fossils like those of the dinosaurs alleged to be millions of years old. This technique is not restricted to bones; it can also be used on cloth, wood and plant fibers. Carbon dating has been used successfully on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Minoan ruins and tombs of the pharaohs among other things.
Carbon is a radioactive isotope of carbon.
The chimpanzee–human divergence likely took place during about 10 to 7 million years ago. The list of fossils begins with Graecopithecus, dated some million years ago, which may or may not still be ancestral to both the human and the chimpanzee the earlier history of the human lineage, see Timeline_of_human_evolution#Hominidae, Hominidae#Phylogeny.
Some paleoanthropologists lump Paranthropus robustus and other paranthropoids into the genus Australopithecus. They consider them to be a physically robust subgroup of australopithecines. Following that excavation, he dedicated the rest of his life to writing everything known about all of the early hominins. He completed this compendium work in He was 85 years old and ill.
As he finally finished his writing, he reportedly said “now it is done and so am I. Brain, using more thorough field and laboratory techniques than had been used by Robert Broom a generation earlier. Many thousands of bone fragments, including the remains of individual hominins, were recovered by Brain. These bones were from australopithecines and paranthropoids as well as early members of our genus, Homo. Because many of the bones had chewing marks and at least one of the skulls had peculiar depressions reminiscent of punctures made by the canine teeth of a leopard, Brain hypothesized that some of the Swartkrans hominins had been eaten by these big cats.
The early hominin fossil-bearing strata in the cave also contained stones that were from locations distant from the cave. Brain believed that 30 of them may have been used as tools or weapons. In any case, the presence of these stones suggests that not all of the early hominins in the cave were there as a result of being the victims of carnivores. Unfortunately, most of the South African sites where early hominin fossils have been found are not easily dated because they lack association with volcanic deposits that would readily allow radiometric dating.
Prehistoric teeth fossils dating back 9.7 million years ‘could rewrite human history’
A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter. Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment. Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection.
Mar 01, · Human Origins; Human Evolution Research. Climate and Human Evolution. Climate Effects on Human Evolution; Survival of the Adaptable; East African Research Projects.
These formations may have resulted from carcass burial in an anoxic environment with minimal bacteria, thus slowing decomposition. Stromatolites Lower Proterozoic Stromatolites from Bolivia , South America Stromatolites are layered accretionary structures formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of sedimentary grains by biofilms of microorganisms , especially cyanobacteria. While older, Archean fossil remains are presumed to be colonies of cyanobacteria , younger that is, Proterozoic fossils may be primordial forms of the eukaryote chlorophytes that is, green algae.
One genus of stromatolite very common in the geologic record is Collenia. The earliest stromatolite of confirmed microbial origin dates to 2. The most widely supported explanation is that stromatolite builders fell victims to grazing creatures the Cambrian substrate revolution , implying that sufficiently complex organisms were common over 1 billion years ago. Factors such as the chemistry of the environment may have been responsible for changes. Cyanobacteria as well as extremophile Gammaproteobacteria are thought to be largely responsible for increasing the amount of oxygen in the primeval earth’s atmosphere through their continuing photosynthesis.
Cyanobacteria use water , carbon dioxide and sunlight to create their food. A layer of mucus often forms over mats of cyanobacterial cells. In modern microbial mats, debris from the surrounding habitat can become trapped within the mucus, which can be cemented by the calcium carbonate to grow thin laminations of limestone. These laminations can accrete over time, resulting in the banded pattern common to stromatolites.
The domal morphology of biological stromatolites is the result of the vertical growth necessary for the continued infiltration of sunlight to the organisms for photosynthesis.
List of human evolution fossils
Dating Here of some of the well-tested methods of dating used in the study of early humans: Potassium-argon dating, Argon-argon dating, Carbon or Radiocarbon , and Uranium series. All of these methods measure the amount of radioactive decay of chemical elements; the decay occurs in a consistent manner, like a clock, over long periods of time.
May 16, · Fossils Indicate Common Ancestor for Old World Monkeys and Apes. A discovery of the oldest known fossils from two major primate groups fills in .
It is an almost complete skull and partial skeleton of an 11 to 12 year old boy. It has a brain size of cc and a height of cm 4’3″ , and is about 1. It was bipedal with long arms suitable for climbing, but had a number of humanlike traits in the skull, teeth and pelvis Stw , “Little Foot”, Australopithecus Discovered by Ron Clarke between and at Sterkfontein in South Africa.
Estimated age is 3. This fossil consists, so far, of many bones from the foot, leg, hand and arm, and a complete skull. More bones are thought to be still embedded in rock. Estimated age is 2. This find is an intact, almost complete cranium. The brain size is very small for a hominid, about cc, and the skull has a puzzling mixture of primitive and advanced features. It consisted of skull fragments, including five teeth, and a few skeletal fragments.
This was the first specimen of robustus. It is a cranium, probably belonging to an adult female, and 1. It is the most complete skull of robustus.
Oldest Homo sapiens fossils discovered
After mating, the female then builds a nest elsewhere to raise the young alone. Franco Atirador Stephen J. Gould argued that these enormous antlers, which required great mineral resources from plants to support and prevented the elk from navigating through forests, were largely responsible for their extinction.
The positioning of the antlers were poor for combat between males, but were great for intimidating rivals and impressing females. Bird-of-Paradise Bird of Paradise These birds have evolved a wide variety of plumage displays for the sole purpose of attracting a mate. Duck genitalia and mechanical barriers Credit:
Figure 2. How relative dating of events and radiometric (numeric) dates are combined to produce a calibrated geological time scale. In this example, the data demonstrates that “fossil B time” was somewhere between and million years ago, and that “fossil A .
From Nature magazine Palaeontologists working in Tanzania have discovered the oldest known fossils from two major primate groups — Old World monkeys, which include baboons and macaques, and apes, which include humans and chimpanzees. The study, published online today in Nature, reveals new information about primate evolution. A team led by Nancy Stevens, a palaeontologist at Ohio University in Athens, recovered a lone tooth and a jaw fragment with three teeth from a site in the Rukwa Rift Basin in southwestern Tanzania.
Precise geological dating of nearby rocks indicates that the fossils are This dating places the discovery in the Oligocene epoch, which extends from about 34 million to 23 million years ago. The discovery also reconciles the fossil record analyses of ‘molecular clocks’ — mutations in DNA that can be traced back to estimate how long ago two species diverged. Molecular clocks suggest that Old World monkeys and apes split from their common ancestor 25 million to 30 million years ago.
Previous geological evidence gathered by the team suggests that tectonic activity in the East African rift system during the late Oligocene may have helped to trigger the evolutionary divergence between Old World monkeys and apes.
Are Fossils the Result of Noah’s Flood?
Earliest known Homo sapiens fossils discovered This is , years older than previously discovered fossils of Homo sapiens that have been securely dated. The discovery was presented in a study in the journal Nature on Wednesday. This marks the first discovery of such fossils in north Africa, and widens the “cradle of mankind” to encompass all of Africa, the researchers said.
Transitionals in the Human Fossil Series is an outstanding website. The artwork below, depicting a series of human skulls, came from there. Their larger version of the artwork is prettier, and they have many pages on their website regarding human evolution and this fossil series.
Are Fossils the Result of Noah’s Flood? First note that very few fossils are forming today and then only in the case of rapid burial by water. For instance what happens to a fish when it dies? It either floats to the surface or sinks to the bottom where it decays and is eaten by scavengers. Yet many fish fossils are so exquisitely preserved that even the scales and organs are preserved. Obviously there was no time for decay and bacterial action. We can certainly say that something extraordinary happened to form the fossils.
Furthermore, most fossils occur in huge fossil graveyards where things from different habitats are mixed together in a watery grave. The predominant type of fossil is that of marine invertebrates but these are found on the continents within catastrophically deposited rock units. Of the several different kinds of fossils, each one requires rapid burial and circumstances which are seldom, if ever, at work today.
Processes of fossilization include: This happens by partial or entire replacement of an organism by minerals, usually one molecule at a time as the organism decays. Time is involved but not time before burial. Petrification occurs when the replacing mineral is silica.